How To Identify the Mojave Green Rattlesnake in a Hurry

“What’s wrong?!” Pam yelled from her room, hearing my barefooted, running steps thundering into my own bedroom from the office.

“Big Mojave green!” I yelled back. The rattlesnake had been spotted slow-hunt-crawling toward our Dirt Hill outside my office window, the same place I’d missed a chance at a similar but smaller critter last June.

Those of you who choose to rage at me for terminating venomous rattlers will have your comments deleted. The Mojave greens are abundant out here on this Arizona acreage one mile north of the Mexican border; the species is anything but at risk. Their poison is neurotoxic and ultra-deadly, and my wife has COPD. The rattlesnake who chooses to hunt within ten feet of our house is choosing to become a snack for the buzzards or the coyotes when its carcass is dropped a bit farther from the residence.

Loud noises began coming from Pam’s direction–the Mojave’s presence was upsetting news to her–as I was jamming a pair of shoes on my feet and grabbing both the .410 shotgun and a set of earphones. Last time, I missed because I dawdled, took the time to take the camera with me.

That mistake, I’ll never make again.

Out the door and over to the corner of the house. From there, drawing down on the still-crawling critter, I dropped the hammer–and missed. With a shotgun. From 40 feet. First time in my life I ever missed taking off a snake’s head with a shotgun at any range, but it is what it is.

Later, I’d figure out what I’d done, where I’d gone wrong when sighting down the barrel. I’d let a little barrel show below the bead and blasted the Magnum load of #6 birdshot just over the snake’s flat head.

But no matter. The -whiz!- of all those BB’s flying overhead was enough to make the big guy go WTF?!! It stopped moving and, as I moved closer, got a bit squiggly on its front half, raised its head a bit–not looking directly at me, didn’t seem to realize I was the real threat–and lifted its tail to shake just a little.

Not even enough to make an audible rattle, just sort of, “What’s going on here?”

I felt bad for it later, like I always do, after taking off the head with my 2nd shot…from 15 feet. By the time I’d taken pictures of the carcass (so as to have photos of the tail end for this Hub) and then gone to get Stan Spade, the shovel used for dead snake carrying duty, one of the huge horse lubber grasshoppers had already crawled up on top of the meat.

“Show some respect for the dead,” I growled at it, shooing it away before hauling the reptile’s remains out to the coyote feeding area.

Coyote feeding, or turkey vulture feeding, or ravens. Whatever gets there first.

Now, this post is titled, “How To Identify the Mojave Green Rattlesnake In a Hurry”, which I’d most definitely done. I doubt I eyeballed the crawler for more than half a second through that office window before sprinting for shoes and shooter. So…how did I do that? What made me know instantly what I was seeing?

After all, we also have gopher snakes around here, and those are all too often mistaken for rattlers and killed by humans (though not by us)…?

Had to think about that for a bit. Border law enforcement people will tell you they “just know” when they’re looking at an illegal immigrant, too. It’s the same thing, kinda sorta, but how do we break it down to the specific signals received by the brain?

Overall, it’s a presence. But to the tenderfoot, the rookie, that’s a word without meaning. So, a few details.

Identification Step One: The head. Sorry. All I can give you is a partial look at a Mojave’s head via the above photo–once I shotgun ’em, the heads aren’t available for photo ops. But the “spade” rule is simple: If the head end looks like a shovel (narrow neck with flaring spade-like head), that’s a big, big, clue.

The Mojave green rattlesnake "shovel head" rule: If there's a flare up there, take care."

The Mojave green rattlesnake “shovel head” rule: If there’s a flare up there, take care.”

Speaking of big, this one really…wasn’t so much. It measured three feet in length, not four. It’s easy to overestimate a live rattler’s size at times, especially after they get up above the 30 inch mark or thereabouts.

Identification, Step Two: The body. Around here, the innocent gopher snake is long and slender of body. The Mojave green rattlesnake is relatively a bit heavier of body.

Let’s show both for comparison.

Mojave green rattlesnake (head not shown). Note the relatively thick central portion of the body.

Mojave green rattlesnake (head not shown). Note the relatively thick central portion of the body.

Nonvenomous gopher snake. The body is slender throughout.

Nonvenomous gopher snake. The body is slender throughout.

Identification Step Three: Coloration: Some Mojave rattlers have a green tint to their hides and some do not. Additionally, for those that do, the green shows much more strongly under some light conditions than others.

The basic rule for us when it comes to “green or no green” is this: If the snake is not green, don’t assume it’s not a Mojave…but if it is green (and looks like a rattlesnake in general), you can bet your boots that’s what you’ve got.

Is it green or not? In the case of the Mojave green rattlesnake, the answer depends on lighting conditions and on the individual.

Is it green or not? In the case of the Mojave green rattlesnake, the answer depends on lighting conditions and on the individual.

Identification Step Four: The tail. This is the most definitive ID step of all. Many believe (me among them) that the Mojave is a relatively new species obtained by crossing cobras with western diamondback rattlesnakes. The tail, at least, makes that seem pretty obvious because the two (Mojave and western diamondback) share the distinctive “coontail” pattern, alternating bands of white and black just ahead of the tail.

And, of course, there are rattles attached to the somewhat blunt end of that tail. This morning’s specimen sported 11 rattles plus the button.

Caveat: The coontail pattern is not always that distinct for the Mojave green, though in the majority of cases it is. We’ve seen some where the bands were there right enough, but the colors were muted, blending in with the rest of the snake. In the majority of cases, however, the bands stand out sharply. And whether they do or not, here’s the Rule of the Tail: If the white and black bands (or simply light and dark bands) are roughly equal in size, you’ve got a western diamondback. If the white/light bands are much wider than the black/dark bands, it’s a Mojave green.

If the white bands on the coontail are noticeably wider than the black bands, you've got a Mojave green rattlesnake. This one had 11 rattles plus the button.

If the white bands on the coontail are noticeably wider than the black bands, you’ve got a Mojave green rattlesnake. This one had 11 rattles plus the button.

Summary: The easily identifiable “signposts” pointing to a snake being a Mojave green rattler include a spade-shaped head with a narrow neck, a body that’s somewhat heavy or thick through the middle, a coontail with the white or light bands much wider than the black or dark bands–and (duh) rattles.

Bonus Educational Material: What follows is “natural cycle of life in the desert” material. If you’re grossed out by the feeding habits of buzzards, please stop here.

Pam had an appointment with her psychiatrist today, which meant we spent many hours in Sierra Vista. After all, you can’t just drive on back home without stopping to eat, spending a small fortune at Walmart, and all that.

We pulled back into the driveway around 4:00 p.m…and one of our friendly neighborhood turkey vultures was chowing down on the Mojave green rattlesnake carcass I’d dropped in the coyote travel lanes about 150 yards from the house.

Photo op!

At one point, the big bird took to the air for a while, apparently a touch nervous that I kept edging closer. After a few minutes of soaring on high, though, it decided I wasn’t really a problem and came back down to finish its lunch.

Three photos follow:

    1. The turkey vulture on the wing,

    2. A moment when it has the entire deceased rattlesnake (or what’s left of it) in its beak.

    3. What the buzzard left behind–which wasn’t much. About 2/3 of the snake’s spine, some scraps of hide, and the rattles (which were broken into two pieces but not ingested).

If you got this far, congratulations. You just learned something about how the desert cleans itself to go with the easy identification of Mojave green rattlesnakes.

Turkey vulture on the wing.

Turkey vulture on the wing.

Turkey vulture, about half done consuming a Mojave green rattlesnake carcass. The bird started from the head end and worked back to the tail.

Turkey vulture, about half done consuming a Mojave green rattlesnake carcass. The bird started from the head end and worked back to the tail.

How much of the snake the buzzard left behind: About 2/3 of the spine, the rattles, and a few scraps of hide.

How much of the snake the buzzard left behind: About 2/3 of the spine, the rattles, and a few scraps of hide.

My wife and I agree: We are endlessly blessed, living as we do in a veritable Life University, never knowing what lessons in the ways of nature each day may bring.


Kathy Keeler (see her comments below) has asked for help in identifying a noticeably green–and fairly large, 42″ length–rattlesnake recently encountered on their southern Monterey County, California, property. At first (before seeing the photos she sent my way), I thought it quite possible she and her husband had indeed had a run-in with a Mojave green…but one glance at the pictures told me: Definitely NOT a Mojave green. The toward-the-tail “striping” pattern is all wrong. for the following reasons:

1. The last foot or more of the California snake shows a rather smooth set of stripes. In the Mojave green, the hint of “diamondback” pattern continues all the way down to the lighter “coontail” pattern.

2. The Calfornia critter’s coloration pattern does not change near the tail (as the Mojave’s definitely does).

3. The California reptile’s DARK stripes are wider than the light stripes (all the way to the rattles), which is the exact OPPOSITE of the Mojave’s drastically wider LIGHT stripes.

That said, this (California) snake is most likely a hybrid blend of two Pacific rattler types which, one of Kathy’s correspondents stated, can sometimes come out with that greenish tint.

I’ve cropped two of the photos Kathy sent me and posted them here for our readers to study.

The California rattlesnake encountered in southern Monterey County, California.  Though certainly greenish, this is definitely NOT a Mojave green rattler; the toward-the-tail striping pattern is ALL wrong.

The California rattlesnake encountered in southern Monterey County, California. Though certainly greenish, this is definitely NOT a Mojave green rattler; the toward-the-tail striping pattern is ALL wrong. Photo by Kathy Keeler.

A known Pacific rattlesnake of the type more commonly encountered in Monterey County.   Note the similarity in toward-the-tail striping to the "mystery green" rattler.  Photo by Kathy Keeler.

A known Pacific rattlesnake of the type more commonly encountered in Monterey County. Note the similarity in toward-the-tail striping to the “mystery green” rattler. Photo by Kathy Keeler.

22 thoughts on “How To Identify the Mojave Green Rattlesnake in a Hurry

  1. Thank you for publishing information on how to identify a Mojave Green Rattlesnake.

  2. Thanks for commenting, and you’re welcome. I’d never even heard of the Mojave Green until moving to Cochise County, Arizona.

  3. When living in kingman in mohave county az those greens became regular visitors to the back yard and even the garage. Believe me they are no friend. They seem to have a nasty disposition and will seek to follow and attack unlike the diamondback that will try to get away. A word of advice….kill um or risk being killed.

  4. I’ve heard that about the Kingman area, Jack. Fortunately for us, the Mojave green rattlers here seem to be milder of disposition–at least the ones we’ve encountered so far, and we’ve encountered a lot of them. Could be they’re hybrids, watering down the aggressive side of their nature a bit; we certainly haven’t seen any diamondbacks around since the Mojaves “took over” the local rattlesnake king-of-the-hill status.

  5. We’re in the foothills of the Central California Coast (Monterey County) and just had a run-in with a nasty rattlesnake that looks strikingly like a Mohave Green. We usually have Northern Pacific rattlers. This snake looked different. This snake was just not green-tinged, it was green. Other neighbors report having had run-ins with green rattlesnakes. It was 42″ long and thicker than most of our Northern Pacific rattlers. The head had the spade shape and it had the black/white stripe pattern on the tail. However, the light band was not larger than the black, but the snake was green. Do you think this was a Mohave Green? We have photos.

  6. Kathryn, my first inclination was to doubt your “nasty rattler” was a Mojave green version, though I have NO idea why it looked so remarkably green. As far as we know, the even-width bands belong primarily to the Western diamondback…but we’ve never heard of one of those coming out green, either. And the wider light bands have proven (so far, at least in this area) to be a pretty foolproof ID badge of the Mojave green.

    Then again, if you look at the examples of this species on Wikipedia (Crotalus scutulatus), those examples do NOT have wider light bands on the tails, so my SECOND thought is that yeah, that probably was a Mojave green after all. Could be there’s a big “tail decoration difference” between those found in southeastern Arizona and southern California. Then again, this is Wikipedia we’re talking about, so they might even be showing the wrong snakes–and definitely does show individuals with the wider light bands.

    If you’d be willing to email me the photos (, I sure would like to see them–and if you have no objection, post some here on this page. If I can’t firmly ID the viper from your pictures, maybe one of our readers can. If you happened to take a close-up shot of the top of the head (if there was any head left after your encounter), and/or the side (profile), there are differences there (between Mojaves and Westerns, at least) that might pin it down. I have some of those details on other “Ghost32writer Mojave green rattlesnake” posts on this site, but there’s no need for you to spend your time digging; I’d be glad to do that for all of us. (The “head” differences that come immediately to mind are two: Number and size of scales on top of head, and where the angled side stripe hits the mouth area.)

    And if I am able to make the ID, I will of course give you full credit while pointing out the necessary details.

  7. best explanation I have found so far of the difference between mohave and diamondback. great photos and story as well. Thank you.

  8. Thanks so much for the info. I’ll email you the photos, and you’re welcome to post them, because I can’t find a place to attach them on the page here. We’re getting more reports of others having run-ins with large green rattlesnakes recently. Our Western Diamondbacks usually do not get as big as people have been reporting, and additionally, these snakes appear thicker in diameter than our normal snakes. Also, everyone agrees that, as snakes go, these green rattlers are nastier and almost aggressive, almost like those kind that pursue you. Since we’re in a remote area, and the type of anti-venon matters that is given, we’d like to try to ID this type of snake more precisely. So after folks have a chance to look at it, any input would be appreciated. Thanks so much!

  9. Got your photos, Kathy; thanks. Your “mystery rattler” is definitely NOT a Mojave green (see updated post text and posted photos above, added on September 24, 2016). I’d say your correspondent who suggested the possibility of a hybridization between two Pacific rattler types has probably hit the nail on the head.

  10. Just had a run in with a Mohave green in Golden Valley Az. This snake had 8 or 9 rattles, had the smaller stripes on it’s tail, extremely green in color. Almost walked up on it thinking it was good snake, it’s head did not have the big spade shape,looked like the shape of a bull snake. Is this a new hybrid? Maybe a slight bit wider but not much. I know I am going to pay a lot more attention to the tail from here on out.

  11. Cheryl, you got me with this one; I’ve never seen one without the traditional spade shaped head. Certainly could be a new hybrid; the Mojave greens do seem to get frisky with their crossbreeding. Or a freak mutant? Birth defect? Questions, but zero answers.

  12. Paul here,yesterday around the grape vines in Hesperia CA , seen a greenish redish with coon markings behind head ???

  13. Paul, I’m zero for two, with no more clue about more interesting description than I about Cheryl’s. You saw the head, I take it, so what about head shaped? Spade, or simple continuation of neck (or close to it?

  14. Son almost stepped on a small rattler not sure if it’s a Mohave green or diamond cuz it’s so small I’ve had a green in my bathroom last year when I moved to Golden Valley az was very scary as it was a very close call too close but this one is small and can’t tell by tail as stripes are not defined yet I can send you a pic and maybe you can help me. Thank you

  15. Hm. I’ve seen the stripes fully defined on a 7 inch Mojave. I’ll be happy to keep an eye out for your email (with photo), but something else does come to mind: Not every Mojave develops tail stripes that are stark black and white. Quite a few of those I studied at the Border Fort (though I’m now living back in my home state of Montana, those memories don’t fade) had tail coloring that was…subdued, subtle, some neither white nor black at all. One snake had such muted green shading that I had to get really close to make out the stripe widths, but once I could see them, the light bands were definitely much wider than the narrower (and only moderately darker) dark bands.

  16. What kind of snakes would I find in Pahrump NV? I’ve been told that there are Mojave greens, diamond backs, and some kind of generic ok snake. U see..I feel any snake should be a dead .

  17. I have killed Mojave greens from 29 Palms in the 60s to Mojave, almost down to Arvin in 80-90s. Never heard of any north or west of there. I talked to a lady that was bit in Stallion Springs in the 80s, commercial kitchen, thought it was an unplugged appliance. Said her whole side went numb In 60 seconds. 40min. ride to Mojave, anti venom was waiting.

  18. Thanks, Ditchdigger. I’m out of Mojave country now, having moved back to my home state of Montana in 2017, but that’s not a species anyone will forget, once encountered. Glad to hear the Stallion Springs lady survived…and hope she got a new prescription for her glasses, or something. Kind of blows my mind, trying to picture mistaking any rattler for an electrical cord. Then again, I grew up in rattlesnake country (not Mojaves) west of Drummond, Montana, and had “snake awareness” practically imprinted on my genes from birth.

  19. Just a note for territory reference, many northern Arizona people believe Mojave greens are not up here in the higher elevations. We live in Chino Valley near Prescott and have killed several of them on our property. The neighbors have killed several as well. They can get quite aggressive. Definitely nothing to mess with!! We do also see the Western Diamondbacks, but in our particular area we tend to see equal amounts or even more of the Mojaves. I have a picture of a dead one that shows the tail nicely if you wish to have it for reference. It might be helpful to some folks.

  20. Thanks, Lisa. If you’d be willing to let me crop your photo to my taste, I’d be willing to see about adding it to this post–with credit to you for the photo, of course. Email address:

    I’ve sold the Border Fort and am living back in my home state of Montana now, where we don’t yet have any Mojaves. “Yet” being the operative word here. It’s been our experience that when they move into an area where they’ve not been seen before, pretty soon (a few years) they become the dominant rattler variety. Although hopefully they aren’t interested in expanding this far north….

    Quite a few folks have observed their aggression as you have. We haven’t. I’m not sure why the difference, but I am grateful.

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